. . . . . .

Reincarnation and the Bible: A Forgotten Doctrine

by Joshua Tilghman on April 6, 2012


This week I would like to address the concept of reincarnation and its relevance to the Bible. Next we’ll look at scriptures that some use to support reincarnation, as well as scriptures that opponents use to refute it. Finally, I’ll explain what my personal beliefs are on this fascinating subject.

Growing up and attending traditional church services, I was never told about reincarnation; it certainly wasn’t up for discussion in Wednesday night Bible study. Of course, you can hardly blame religious leaders for leaving it out of their teachings when everything they have studied and read probably refuted the idea. But many people today—including some religious leaders—do not know that reincarnation was a common belief at the time of Christ. In fact, even the disciples of Jesus accepted it. John chapter nine makes this absolutely clear. In this incident, the disciples and Jesus pass a blind man on the side of the road. The disciples then asked Jesus if it was this man or his parents who sinned to make him be born blind. The question reveals what they believed, for how can a man come into this world blind because of sin if he had not lived a previous life to do the sinning?

For many years following Christ’s ministry, reincarnation was believed by many of the most influential Christians. Origen stated, “The soul has neither beginning nor end. [They] come into this world strengthened by the victories or weakened by the defeats for their previous lives.” Many centuries later, reincarnation was so widespread among Christians that the Roman emperor Justinian took action that led to its banishment in the mid sixth century AD. It is interesting that this was accomplished by a Roman emperor. At this time, the church was more of a state institution than an avenue of spirituality, and I imagine a belief in reincarnation probably wasn’t in the best interest of an emperor who demanded total obedience from his subjects; if the people were allowed to believe reincarnation was true, then eternal punishment really wouldn’t be the judgment for a soul who disregarded the divine orders of the Christian emperor.

Because of the efforts of Justinian and many others, it didn’t take long for this doctrine to be systematically removed from Christian theology. And as you probably already know, most Christians didn’t have access to the scriptures. In fact, at certain times in history, it wasn’t just reincarnation that was banned—READING THE BIBLE WAS TOO! So it REALLY shouldn’t surprise us that the idea of reincarnation didn’t survive the divine will of the emperor, and has only resurfaced in the last few centuries when more people are able to think critically about what the scriptures truly mean.

So where does the idea of reincarnation surface in the Bible? Actually, there are too many places for one blog post, so let’s go over the more popular ones used for reincarnation discussions.

One of the most well-known prophecies in the Old Testament is the return of Elijah. Prominent scriptures teach that Elijah must return to earth to prepare the way for the Lord. In fact, according to common Jewish belief, Elijah was to come and “restore all things” before any messiah could appear. So in order for Jesus to have been the messiah, this prophecy had to have come to fruition. And it seems that Jesus confirmed that it did.

In Matthew 11:14 Jesus tells the multitude of John the Baptist: “If you are willing to accept it, he [John] is Elijah who is to come.”  Jesus also states in the Gospel of Mark: “But I tell you that Elijah has come, and they did to him whatever they pleased, as it is written of him.”

The phrase “…as it was written of him…” which is speaking of Elijah, makes this whole point pretty clear: Jesus was trying to convey that John the Baptist was of the same spirit as that of Elijah.

I think these scriptures are pretty clear about who John was. Nevertheless, and to be fair to the opponents of the idea of reincarnation being supported in the Bible, there do seem to be scriptures that refute it, at least on the surface. But upon close inspection, I do not think they are very strong. For instance, many Westerners—often ones that have not studied what reincarnation truly is or means—will combat the reincarnation of Elijah as John with Luke 1:17, which states that John will go before the messiah “…in the spirit and power of Elias [Elijah].” They conclude that “in the spirit and power of Elijah” means it wasn’t Elijah. This is probably one of the worst arguments an opponent could give. Why? Because returning to the earth in the “spirit and power” of someone who has already lived on the earth IS REINCARNATION! Actually, there isn’t really a much better definition for it. It would seem that the opponents of Biblical reincarnation haven’t thought this one through very well, and only someone who didn’t understand the concept of reincarnation would use this scripture as proof against it. The sad part is that there are literally hundreds, if not thousands, of websites that do in fact use this argument.

Opponents of Biblical reincarnation also use John 1:21-23 as ammunition. Here, the Levites ask John the Baptist point blank if he is Elijah that was to come. John responds by telling them no. So If John really was the reincarnated Elijah, why would he deny it?

We could also ask why John didn’t know Jesus was the true messiah while in jail before being beheaded. In the beginning of his ministry, the gospels make it clear that John understood exactly who Jesus was. But after being put in jail, he went through a period of doubt where he wasn’t sure if Jesus really was THE messiah or not, so he sent his disciples to personally ask him. It seems John lost faith when he failed to comprehend the full extent of Jesus’ ministry. Couldn’t John have also made the mistake of not realizing he was the reincarnation of the spirit to be in Elijah before?

When I began to understand more of what reincarnation was, I realized that just because John didn’t believe he was Elijah reincarnated doesn’t mean much. Each reincarnated life is a culmination of previous lives and conscious experiences before it. Reincarnation is not about the exact same person coming back to inhabit a different body. It’s about many life experiences that one soul goes through in order to grow and hopefully mature. Each incarnation of the soul can therefore still be understood to b a unique individual person. And when that soul dies, that same soul doesn’t come back. Why? Because what reincarnates is that same soul in addition to the culminate experiences that soul has had in perpetuity. Let’s say that I, Joshua Tilghman, was to reincarnate on the earth two hundred years from now. Is it Joshua Tilghman that is reincarnating? Not exactly. However, some of the same personality traits that made up Joshua Tilghman would reincarnate.

We must also remember that the Old Testament states Elijah must come back to prepare the way of the messiah. So if you don’t believe Elijah returned in the spirit of John, how can you believe Jesus was the messiah?

Another scripture often used to refute reincarnation is Hebrews 9:27. It states “…it is appointed men once to die…”

But even this is within the confines of reincarnation. As we already discussed, after death it is not the exact same soul that returns. It is the culmination of all of that soul’s incarnations which results in a unique individual every incarnation cycle. So even in the doctrine of reincarnation, it is still appointed unto man once to die! As both nature and Jesus taught, through death always comes more physical life! The death of one tree or plant produces thousands of more lives. Reincarnation is really not much different.

So why does mainstream Christianity still vehemently deny reincarnation today? One of the most prominent reasons is because it contradicts the idea of a resurrection after death. However, this is where I believe the institutionalized church of antiquity also missed the point. The resurrection does not take place after death, as the literal interpretation supposes. The resurrection takes place while you LIVE, as a spiritual experience. As the Gospel of Philip, a Gnostic scripture, states:

“People who say they will first die and then arise are mistaken. If they do not first receive resurrection while they are alive, once they have died they will receive nothing.”

This scripture was written because the Gnostics of antiquity understood that the literalists did not fully comprehend the spiritual intent of the New Testament writings. Even Jesus told Nicodemus that you must be “born again”, which better translates as “born from above”. This being born from above is a spiritual birth that happens while one is yet alive in the physical. When you combine this with Jesus’ statement that the Kingdom of Heaven is within you, it all becomes very clear; becoming born from above IS a resurrection!

If we are honest with ourselves, even most children would find the idea of God putting back together a body after it has been decomposed by worms and bacteria a little far-fetched.

I would now like to share a little more about my personal beliefs on reincarnation. Consider the following scenario, as I have:

Imagine a baby dying and then appearing before God. Since we are judged by the deeds done on this earth, what crown would this baby be able to place at the feet of Jesus? In other words, what could the baby offer in return for reward? Not only would the baby be able to offer nothing, but what could the baby receive? Wouldn’t this be the ultimate example of something totally unjust and unfair? The baby would not have even had the chance of offering something to God.

Consider another scenario: how can a merciful God create a place of eternal punishment for a sinner, especially when that God KNEW before hand that the creation would end up there? If God really did this, is “merciful” the right word to describe Him?

After thinking for myself instead of believing what I have been told about the Bible, I can’t help but wonder how much institutionalized Christianity strayed from its spiritually humble beginnings. I am willing to bet a whole lot.

Finally, and as you probably already know, reincarnation works on the principle of karma. This is exactly the same thing as reaping what you sow! THAT is just. THAT is merciful. This is also truly in line with a loving Father who rains both on the just and unjust! So yes, I think the idea of reincarnation is a very logical belief, and personally, I am glad to see that Jesus supports it.

What do you think?

 

{ 31 comments… read them below or add one }

1 Eric April 13, 2012 at 7:26 pm

I like pizza too!

Reply

2 Joshua Tilghman April 13, 2012 at 9:05 pm

LOL! Eric, maybe you didn’t approve? I still enjoyed the comment.

Reply

3 Rodney Gross June 9, 2012 at 8:46 pm

Yes reincarnation is real, and believe it or not I am John the Baptist reincarnated. I was however not Elijah reincarnated as John the Baptist. When the prophet Elisha Elijah’s apostle was alive, I was General Naaman of the Assyrian army. Elijah was taken to one of the planets of the angels by a spaceship. He hasn’t died yet.
GOD BLESS YOU!

Reply

4 Joshua Tilghman June 9, 2012 at 10:29 pm

Rodney,

Thanks for commenting.

Reply

5 Paulose August 15, 2012 at 11:20 pm

“Elijah was taken to one of the planets of the angels by a spaceship. He hasn’t died yet.”

Please visit http://bit.ly/Riod37 for an explanation.

God bless you too!

Reply

6 Joshua Tilghman August 16, 2012 at 5:30 pm

Thanks for commenting on the blog! I will check on that link you sent.

Reply

7 Rodney Gross June 10, 2012 at 5:10 pm

Ecclesiastes chapter 1 verse 9 is 100 percent proof of reincarnation, and was written by the wisest man to ever live, king Solomon. I’ll also check for more proofs my friend.
As always…GOD BLESS!!

Reply

8 erthonee June 16, 2012 at 2:45 pm

Reincarnation for a few is possible but for every one. More so its is really being incarnated to another level or plane of existence rather then being born to this earth again, i do believe though that some have been reincarnated but not all have to go that route to learn from their experience

Reply

9 Joshua Tilghman June 16, 2012 at 3:02 pm

Thanks for your comment, erthonee. I do appreciate you reading. There are a lot of different beliefs even in the reincarnation camp, and although I am not sure exactly how reincarnation plays out for everyone, I do know it was taught by the earliest Christians.

Reply

10 Allen June 23, 2012 at 9:55 pm

Here’s a statement from the Bible which presumes a belief in reincarnation:

Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there. (Job 1:21)

This can best be understood by;
how can a man return to his mother’s womb if not through rebirth into another mother’s body?

Reply

11 Joshua Tilghman June 23, 2012 at 10:08 pm

Allen,

Great scripture! I find it hard to believe that anyone would try to argue this any other way; I have seen some try. Thanks for the comment.

Reply

12 Allen June 24, 2012 at 8:29 pm

Joshua – I’ve a question for U.
You stated the following in a June 16th post.

“There are a lot of different beliefs even in the reincarnation camp, and although I am not sure exactly how reincarnation plays out for everyone.”
=============================================

What do you mean by “not sure how reincarnation plays out for everyone?”
Why wouldn’t it be the same for everyone?

It seems to me that as spirits…WE ALL… ‘trillions and trillions of us’ are just at different stages of growth, maturity and progression.
All spirits may not have been created at the same time.

Also, our earth is a very backward, dense and tough world compared to other worlds in the universe. Very young spirits may never be allow to come to our earth in its present state.

It seems that some spirits that are younger and more ignorant and may be more inclined to do wickedness…while others that are older and more mature (wise) may have had a opportunity to be further along.

Your thoughts, Allen
=====================
One more Q…
As I was getting ready to send this post to you I noticed something.

How did a post at my site get to the bottom of your page?
the post is titled:
“”Earth…at it’s creation…was resting station for wandering spirits”

I am glad to see it there…just surprised that’s all.

Reply

13 Joshua Tilghman June 25, 2012 at 9:10 am

Allen,

Your post was added to the bottom of your comment because of a plugin called “Commentluv.” This is one of the few plugins I thought would be worth its weight in gold. It rewards comments from others with sites and blogs by allowing links back to your site. The plugin does this automatically and hopefully will help get your word out too since people can easily visit your site from mine now. The plugin also does the same for me. I am still learning how valuable this plugin is. I just purchased it.

About your question on reincarnation:

My word choice was poor. What I should have said is that I didn’t want to get into the semantics of how reincarnation plays out for everyone in the post. As you stated, everyone is different as regards to their maturity, so the next cycle is determined by the choices and experiences from the previous one. Thanks for getting clarification, and I look forward to hearing more of your thoughts with future posts on reincarnation. It’s an important topic!

Reply

14 tChron September 17, 2012 at 3:02 pm

In “The Revelations Of An Elite Family Insider 2005″ it is said that reincarnation is true. The person posting all the answers also says that Earth is a prison, “and even worse”, and from what I took from reading the document is that once we have proven ourselves to be worthy, we will eventually be released from this prison and return to the One. This document also says that the struggles in our lives is not with the outside world, but within ourselves. I find it a very interesting document, it opened up my eyes. Any chance it will be covered in an article on this site?

Reply

15 Joshua Tilghman September 17, 2012 at 8:19 pm

I can easily see why someone could say the earth is a prison. I could also see why someone could say this earth is a paradise. Why? Because as you stated, the struggle truly is “within” ourselves. This is why Jesus was crucified at Golgotha, the “place of the skull.” Esoterically this means that Jesus overcame his mind, his ego. The battle is between the ears. That’s why we aren’t to walk by sight.

I will take a look at the article you mentioned. I don’t think I have ever seen or heard of it before.

Reply

16 Rogan September 27, 2012 at 7:13 pm

I have been troubled by this matter my entire life. If God is just how could he let souls burn for eternity? How does that work? Are there different hells? Coz i find all this hard to believe! How can the soul of a man who cheated on his wife and the soul of a nazi who burnt and killed thousand of people burn together as if they had comitted the same sins. And that makes me question free will. If God knows our destiny, if our stories are written befOre hand then how are we free? I liked what Imran Ivanov had to say on reincarnation it made some sense to me. Oh and i just read your bio Josh and i have to say u sound alot like me. Are u a water sign? I read alot on astrology matter of fact im interested in anything that has to do with mystic and spiritualism im very curious about the greater purpose and that kinda stuff.

Reply

17 Jeronimus October 15, 2012 at 5:42 am

Hi Joshua. You’ve hit the nail right on the head when you say that the doctrine of reincarnation was not compatible with the notion of eternal damnation, used by temporal powers to control people.

Reply

18 Joshua Tilghman October 15, 2012 at 7:13 pm

Jeronimus,

If only more people studied history, right? Thanks for commenting.

Reply

19 Nathan January 15, 2013 at 12:09 am

Hi all,

I’m rather late to this thread but the topic interests. As a Latter-day Saint Christian (mormon) I’ve heard a quote that I’ve never seen (meaning hearsay) of Joseph Smith saying “Reincarnation is not a true doctrine as the world teaches it.”

Of course that would open the possibility that there is a true doctrine of reincarnation.

I’ve sometimes speculated on what that doctrine could be. Yours is a thoughtful article.

Regardless, LDS do not see hell as something the typical person will be in forever. The New Testament book of Revelations has hell delivering up the dead, along with the sea, the grave, and death. We believe after hell comes a reward and a glory to match the best that God can justify giving – and not a bit more or less. And that such a reward and glory will vary from person to person.

We also believe children under the age of 8 and all – whether Christian, athiest, or anything else – who are “honorable” (by God’s standards) will at the very least not have to go to hell and at best be able to receive every blessing if they would have accepted the good news of Christ with all their hearts if they had received the opportunity. I’m thinking that most people – probably even most “Christians” – have not received the opportunity because the good news is not generally correctly stated or understood.

Ultimately, I suspect past reincarnation (prior to birth on this planet) is far more likely than future reincarnation.

Reply

20 Joshua Tilghman January 15, 2013 at 11:29 pm

Hi Nathan,

Thanks for sharing your thoughts with us. Every perspective adds the debate, and all should be considered. Blessings.

Reply

21 Moran Hatcher August 12, 2013 at 7:13 pm

Hi Joshua,

I enjoy a lot of the material you have put out! Its been refreshing to see someone else that believes the Word of God is all spiritual. Rom.(7:14), 1Cor.(10:3-4), Col.(1:9) Nevertheless I perceive faith turns up missing in a lot of what you have written! The information you put out about baptism was enlightening until you gave people exercises for meditation on the Word! Yes it’s true the kingdom of God is within you! Luke(17:21), Ecc.(3:11) No one can tap into the kingdom without an invitation! Concerning the Word I meditate also, but not by my will, power or strength. Only by the spirit guiding me into meditation, this is when I know its giving understanding of what I read! We have been taught we have free will! According to the Word that’s not true! Rom.(9:11-23), Phl.(2:13), Zec.(4:6) This spiritual journey is by faith and faith only! Knowledge isn’t enough! Matt.(18:20) Heb.(4:2) Faith which is Christ will bring us into the knowledge, otherwise we will become religious! I think we veer off because we make the scriptures about us, according to the Word it’s about Christ! Psa(40:7), Luke(24:44), John(5:39) I do love your zeal, compassion & love for the Word! Spirit & truth is the path! I look forward to breaking bread with you in the future! God Bless! A couple of scriptures that have helped guide me to understanding! Isa.(55:11) & John(3:27)

Reply

22 Joshua Tilghman August 13, 2013 at 11:22 am

Moran,

In other articles I have written about faith and knowledge. Knowledge can never give you access to God. Gnosis, knowing, is about a direct experience and has more to do with faith than knowledge. Knowledge concerning the intellect is important because it can helps lead us to what God is NOT, but as you suggest it is only by faith and direct experience that we have access to what we label God. In other words, knowledge can bring you to the door of God, but knowledge can get you into that door. I hope this makes sense.

Blessings!

Reply

23 Arlene January 29, 2014 at 3:20 pm

Hi Morgan…..

My thoughts are parallel to yours. All of Scripture is about Jesus Christ and His plan for worldwide salvation. We can’t see all the verses as literal stories.

One thought I had when reading this comment is that when Jesus told us that the “kingdom of God is within you”, He was telling us that our journey does not concern anyone else except changes within ourselves. It is a spiritual journey for each of us. As we read the bible and meditate upon God’s words, we will be led by the spirit of God in our understanding. That’s what’s meant in I John 2:27.

Another thought I had about reincarnation is that it detracts from the work of Jesus Christ. I John 2:2 tells us the He, alone, is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and also for the sins of the world. If we have to work out our own sins in the cycle of reincarnation, then the sacrifice Jesus made would be moot.

I am one of the few “our there” who does not believe in eternal torment in hell for anyone. The definition of God in I John 4:8 is “Love”. And He told us to “love our enemies”, so would He do less than we would do? In Jeremiah 32:35 God calls burning people to Molech “an abomination” and that this kind of thing never came to His mind. So, because of who God is, I cannot believe that he could, or would, condemn anyone for eternity.

Because some people, and maybe most of them, will have their “part” in the lake of fire. And I believe this is God’s way of purification, as God is also defined as a “consuming fire” in Hebrews 12:29. Facing God will be purification of sins not paid by the sacrifice of Jesus.

I just had to tell you that it is wonderful to read the thoughts of someone else who thinks spiritually, as I do. And, like you, I love the zeal and bible knowledge at this website.

God bless all….

Arlene

Reply

24 Moran January 31, 2014 at 5:50 am

Hi Arlene,
It’s reassuring to know that the Spirit of truth is moving in the vessels in which God has chosen to reveal His son! I don’t expect everyone to agree with the understanding God has given to me because we all are in different stages of spiritual growth! You may be able to receive truth that I can’t because your faith is more mature than mine! That’s why Christ would say to the disciples that they weren’t able to bear certain truths! We all have been indoctrinated into the teaching of the law of Moses! Many have been called and few have been chosen to be awakened out of the sleep of that teaching! Why? Because that teaching is mans wisdom! And we have been awakened because of the mercy and compassion of God not because of anything we have done! Sorry the Word never gives man credit for doing the will of God as it shouldn’t because we have done nothing but live in this world and die! God has done it all for us! Four things God has shown me that allowed me to see how powerless we are as far as the spirit kingdoms! We don’t know when we will be born or die! And we can’t take out a bad spirit and put a good spirit in ourselves or anyone for that matter and vice versa! And as soon as we embrace our weaknesses instead of cover them up, only then can we see the one and only true God Jesus Christ! Resist mans teaching of God! Instead seek after the spiritual teaching of God which comes from within! The law of Christ has fulfilled the law of Moses!

Reply

25 Alvin Davis January 1, 2014 at 1:42 pm

Good Article! 2 good books on this subject – Journey / Destiney of souls, by michael newton

Happy New Year

Reply

26 Stevie March 18, 2014 at 12:54 am

Yes a very interesting article. I have been firmly convicted in my belief in reincarnation. Without reincarnation karma does not make much sense as everybody knows people often get away with terrible things. It can only make sense if we are to undergo reincarnation and be born in possibly less favourable conditions perhaps even in a lower plane of existence. Another thought I have about this is that before we reincarnate we may have to experience our karma in an afterlife astral plane of existence. In this way some may even experience a temporary ‘hell’ in an astral plane. I find this thought a little bit frightening because who knows how long this hellish duration would be and how can we be sure if our positive karma outweighs our negative karma. I suffer from depression and often feel very unfulfilled in life. So I worry that if I was to go to the grave still feeling like this would I experience a hellish afterlife ? The question really is do you need to be happy to have a good afterlife experience immediately after this one? Also in regards to the spiritual resurrection how does one know if that has taken place in oneself or not ?

Reply

27 Joshua Tilghman March 22, 2014 at 11:45 pm

Stevie,

Some ancient esoteric schools taught that anyone who didn’t experience what was to come in the afterlife in this life would experience some sort of suffering. But this isn’t to scare us. Suffering is a part of the human condition. Waking up from the illusion and ending desire is the way to experience the resurrection, but for most of us, this isn’t something that happens in one lifetime. It takes many. I suggest practicing meditation…daily. This will help. Also read Eckart Tolle’s the Power of Now for great pointers that can help you refocus on being content now. Don’t fret about how to know when you’ve had a resurrection experience. This will only get you sidetracked.

Reply

28 Maryann July 6, 2014 at 12:07 am

Very interesting- thank you. You mention the Roman emperor Justinian as being the one who deleted all references to reincarnation in the Bible. But I’ve read it was the emperor Constantinople (who was the 1st Roman emperor to turn to Christianity in around 530 AD) that ordered all references out of the Bible and enforced all talk or mention of reincarnation. Is the Justinian and Constantinople eras linked?

Reply

29 Jeronimus July 16, 2014 at 10:57 pm

I was surprised to discover not long ago that reincarnation has always been a part of Jewish tradition, though not all Jews accept it.
There were even rabbis who specialised in identifying a person’s past lives, presumably to help them understand the present life better. Not sure if this practice continues today.
Personally I feel its best to concentrate on the present life, but I can see that sometimes knowledge of past existences could be therapeutic.

Reply

30 Zoey September 12, 2014 at 12:55 pm

This is personal, but I don’t believe in reincarnation. Sure, it’s persuading and cool and all, but what about normal people? You don’t hear them being reborn, do you? I’m a Southern Baptist, and for me it’s hard to believe that people know they’ve been “reincarnated”. Even if we were, how would we know? Yes, I’m aware some of you guys believe it or part of it (no offense in any way), but I mean, seriously. We all are “born again” (John 3:3-8) in Christ, but not in another body (again, my opinion.).
I’m just saying that if Nicodemus (you know who he is, asked Jesus a few questions in John 3) said we can’t be reborn into new flesh, and JESUS SAID IT TOO, why would it make sense?

-Zoey

Reply

31 Linda Loman September 15, 2014 at 5:51 pm

The word “reincarnation” is a stumbling block, even though the principal is of a high intellect. It’s that worldly concept of having lived again, maybe even as a rat. And because of that sort of abuse in understanding, this is a concept that most Christians will resist. It is an esoteric concept. The truth involved simply cannot be heard, for the construct of religion is flowing on a totally different channel. But I do understand your desire and right to state your heart on your blog. That is your forum.
I, also, embrace the concept that we have been here before, especially because it doesn’t seem logical or practical that God would accomplish something in a space of a body and not continue it on in His own mechanism. After all, there is only 1 Spirit–God’s, and it is He who has the soul (the 1 corporate soul), and we provide the bodies. Therefore, God is recomposing or recycling an essence of his own soul and life that will serve a continued purpose in the new version of today, the eternal NOW. Future, past & present are all contained there. I do not believe this diminishes our own persona that he is building up. But that small bump, hill, or mountain that He is working on to press us into the Kingdom (pressure, tribulation) is indeed Him with my name on it, for the purpose I fill today.
Blessings to you!

Reply

Leave a Comment

Previous post:

Next post: